يقوم طيار الاختبار ريتش بتقديم فرقة انتحارية لهتلر

يقوم طيار الاختبار ريتش بتقديم فرقة انتحارية لهتلر

تقترح هانا ريتش ، أول طيار اختبار في العالم ، إنشاء ما يعادل فرقة كاميكازي من الانتحاريين أثناء زيارة أدولف هتلر في بيرشتسجادن. كان هتلر أقل حماسًا للفكرة.

ولد Reitsch عام 1912 في Hirschberg بألمانيا. تركت كلية الطب (كانت تريد أن تصبح طبيبة تبشيرية) لتتفرغ للطيران بدوام كامل ، وأصبحت طيارًا خبيرًا في الطائرات الشراعية - كانت الطائرات الشراعية عبارة عن طائرات بدون محرك طورها الألمان للتهرب من القواعد الصارمة المتعلقة ببناء "الطائرات الحربية" بعد الحرب العالمية الأولى. بالإضافة إلى اكتساب الخبرة مع الطائرات الشراعية ، قام Reitsch أيضًا بمغامرة الطيران في الأفلام. في عام 1934 ، حطمت الرقم القياسي العالمي لارتفاع النساء (9184 قدمًا). كونها نازية متحمسة ومعجبة بهتلر ، تم تعيينها قبطان طيران فخري من قبل الفوهرر ، وهي أول امرأة تحصل على مثل هذا الشرف. في عام 1937 ، وضعها سلاح الجو الألماني Luftwaffe للعمل كطيار اختبار. انتهزت ريتش هذه الفرصة للطيران كجزء مما وصفته بـ "حراس بوابات السلام" في ألمانيا. من بين إنجازاتها البارزة اختبار طائرة هليكوبتر أولية في عام 1939.

اقترب ريتش من رؤية قتال حقيقي خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية أكثر من معظم النساء ، حيث وضع القوات الألمانية على طول خط ماجينو في فرنسا خلال غزو الألمان عام 1940 بطائرة شراعية. فازت بجائزة صليب حديدي من الدرجة الثانية لمجازفتها بحياتها في محاولة قطع كابلات البالونات البريطانية (كانت البالونات مناطيد غير مأهولة ، مقيدة في مكان واحد ، تتدلى منها الكابلات الفولاذية لإلحاق الضرر بأجنحة ومراوح طائرات العدو) . من بين الطائرات الحربية التي اختبرتها كانت طائرة Messerschmitt 163 ، وهي صاروخ اعتراض بقوة الصواريخ حلقت بسرعة 500 ميل في الساعة. أثناء اختبار ME 163 للمرة الخامسة ، خرجت عن السيطرة وتحطمت (على الرغم من إصابتها أثناء الحادث ، إلا أنها تمكنت مع ذلك من تدوين ما حدث بالضبط قبل وفاتها من إصاباتها). لهذا ، منحها هتلر صليبًا حديديًا من الدرجة الأولى.

أثناء تلقيها هذا الصليب الحديدي الثاني من هتلر في بيرشتسجادن في عام 1944 ، طرحت فكرة فرقة انتحارية من الطيارين من طراز Luftwaffe الذين سيطيرون بنسخ مصممة خصيصًا من V-1. تم تأجيل هتلر في البداية بالفكرة ، فقط لأنه لم يعتقد أنها استخدام فعال أو فعال للموارد. لكن التزام Reitsch أقنعه بالتحقيق في احتمال تصميم مثل هذه الطائرات ، وعند هذه النقطة شكلت مجموعة Suicide Group وكانت أول من أخذ التعهد التالي: "بموجب هذا ... أتقدم طواعية للانضمام إلى المجموعة الانتحارية كطيار قنبلة طائرة شراعية بشرية. أفهم تمامًا أن العمل بهذه الصفة سينطوي على موتي ". لم يتم نشر الفرقة قط.

كان ريتش أحد آخر الأشخاص الذين رأوا هتلر على قيد الحياة. في 26 أبريل 1945 ، سافرت إلى برلين مع الجنرال ريتر فون غريم ، الذي كان سيُعطى قيادة سلاح الجو الألماني. أصيب غريم عندما أصيبت طائرة ريتش بنيران مضادة للطائرات السوفيتية. بعد أن ودعت الفوهرر ، المختبئ بعيدًا في مخبئه ، طارت غريم عائدةً من برلين.

بعد الحرب ، تم القبض على ريتش واحتجازه من قبل الجيش الأمريكي. وشهدت على "تفكك" شخصية هتلر التي زعمت أنها شهدتها خلال الأيام الأخيرة من الحرب. عند إطلاق سراحه ، واصلت ريتش تسجيل الأرقام القياسية ، بما في ذلك أن تصبح أول امرأة تطير بطائرة شراعية فوق جبال الألب. في عام 1951 ، نشرت سيرتها الذاتية ، الطيران هو حياتي ، ومن عام 1962 إلى عام 1966 كانت مديرة المدرسة الوطنية للطيران الشراعي في غانا. توفيت في عام 1979 ، بعد عام واحد فقط من تسجيل رقم قياسي جديد لمسافة الطائرات الشراعية للسيدات. في مسيرتها المهنية ، سجلت أكثر من 40 رقمًا قياسيًا عالميًا في مجال الطيران بالطائرات التي تعمل بالطاقة وبدون محركات.


28/02/1944: Hanna Reitsch đề xuất thành lập đội bay cảm to với Hitler

Vào ngày này năm 1944، khi on thăm Adolf Hitler ở Berchtesgaden، Hanna Reitsch، nữ Phi công bay thử nghiệm đầu tiên trên thế giới، ã gợi ý rằng Đức Quốc t i n كاميكازي (Thần Phong - đội máy bay đánh bom liều chết của Nhật). توي نيهين ، هتلر خونج مي نيهيت تينه في ، تونغ ني.

Reitsch sinh năm 1912 tại Hirschberg، Đức. Bà rời trường y (bà từng muốn trở thành một bác sĩ truyền giáo) để bắt đầu công việc bay toàn thời gian، và trành một Phi công láy tàu ln chuyn mà người Đức ã phát triển để trốn tránh các quy tắc nghiêm ngặt về việc chế tạo “máy bay chiến tranh” sau thế chiến I. .

Năm 1934، bà ã phá kỷ lục thế giới khi trở thành người phụ nữ bay ở cao cao nhất (2800m). Là một thành viên nhiệt thành của Đức Quốc Xã và đặc biệt ngưỡng mộ Hitler، Reitsch được vị Quốc trưởng phong làm cơ trưởng danh dự، trở thành người phụ nữ nh d Năm 1937، Luftwaffe، lực lượng Không Quân Đức، đưa bà vào làm phi công thử nghiệm. Bà ã nắm lấy cơ hội này để trở thành một phần của cái mà bà gọi là “những người bảo vệ cánh cổng hòa bình” của Đức. ترونج سو نونج ثانه تو نوي بات كا با لا فيك ثử نغيم نغوين مو ماي باي تراك ثونج في نيم 1939.

Reitsch đã on gần chiến trường hơn bất kỳ phụ nữ nào khác trong Thế chiến II ، khi giúp điều hướng quân Đức dọc theo Phòng tuyến Maginot ở Pháp trong cuộc nâmn Bà ã giành được Huân chương Sắt، Hạng Nhì (الصليب الحديدي ، الدرجة الثانية) ، vì đã liều mạng cố gắng cắt dây cáp 'bóng bay' của Anh (ây là loại khinh khí cầ lc nơi، trên đó treo lủng lẳng nhiều sợi cáp bằng thép với mục ích làm hỏng cánh và động cơ của máy bay địch). Trong số các máy bay chiến đấu mà bà thử nghiệm có Messerschmitt 163، một máy bay ánh chặn chạy bằng tên lửa، bay với vận tốc 804 km / giờ. Trong khi thử nghiệm ME 163 lần thứ năm، bà ã mất kiểm soát và rơi xuống đất (mặc dù bị thương trong vụ va chạm، nhưng bà vẫn cố gắng viết ra chính tronght ra chính trong ). Vì điều này ، هتلر đã trao tặng bà Huân chương Sắt ، Hạng Nhất (الصليب الحديدي ، الدرجة الأولى).

المملكة للاستثمارات الفندقية نهان được هوان تشونج السبت الخميس هاي تو هتلر ở بيرشتسجادن فاو حركة عدم الانحياز عام 1944، Bà دجا نوي ý تونغ VE MOT đội كام تو thuộc خونغ تشيوان Đức، جوم CAC فاي كونغ SE خليج phiên بان ثيت كه đặc بيت كوا V-1. Ban đầu، Hitler ã gạt bỏ ý tưởng này vì ông ta không cho rằng đó là một cách sử dụng hiệu quả các nguồn lực. Nhưng sự nhất quyết của Reitsch đã thuyết phục ông xem xét triển vọng của việc thiết kế những chiếc máy bay như vậy. Tại thời điểm đó، bà ã thành lập một Nhóm Cảm tử và là người đầu tiên tuyên thệ: "Tôi xin ... Tôi hoàn toàn hiểu rằng công này có thể sẽ dẫn on cái chết của chính tôi. " Tuy nhiên، đội hình này đã không bao giờ được triển khai.

Reitsch là một trong những người cuối cùng nhìn thấy Hitler còn sống. Ngày 26/04/1945 ، خليج في برلين cùng với Tướng Ritter von Greim ، người sẽ được trao quyền chỉ huy Luftwaffe. Greim bị thương khi máy bay của Reitsch bị trúng on phòng không của Liên Xô. Sau khi nói lời từ biệt với Quốc trưởng، người quyết định ẩn mình trong boongke، bà ã đưa Greim trở lại Berlin.

Sau chiến tranh، Reitsch bị quân đội Mỹ bắt và giam giữ. Bà ã làm chứng cho sự “phân rã” trong nhân cách của Hitler - mà bản thân bà chứng kiến ​​trong những ngày cuối cng ca cuộc chiến. Khi được thả، Reitsch tiếp tục lập nhiều kỷ lục، bao gồm việc trở thành người phụ nữ đầu tiên bay tàu lượn trên dãy Alps. Năm 1951، bà xuất bản cuốn tự truyện الطيران هو حياتي، và từ năm 1962 n năm 1966، bà giữ chức giám đốc trường dạy bay quốc gia ở Ghana. Bà mất năm 1979، chỉ một năm sau khi lập kỷ lục mới về cự ly bay tàu lượn dành cho nữ. Trong sự nghiệp của mình، Reitsch đã lập hơn 40 kỷ lục thế giới về lái máy bay cóng cơ và không động cơ.


طيار الاختبار "ريتش" يقدم فرقة انتحارية لهتلر - التاريخ

طيار يطرح فرقة انتحارية لهتلر (28 فبراير 1944)

اليوم في Odd History ، اقترحت هانا ريتش ، طيار الاختبار الشهير في ألمانيا النازية ، أن على أدولف هتلر إنشاء سرب انتحاري من طياري الطائرات الشراعية. كان هتلر متشككًا في الفكرة ، معتقدًا أن مثل هذا السرب لن يكون استخدامًا فعالًا لموارد ألمانيا المحدودة. لقد أكسبه حماس الشقراء الرقيق أخيرًا لأنه وافق على التحقيق في إمكانية تكييف V-1 ، الذي تم تصميمه ليكون قنبلة آلية بدون طيار ، مع مركبة كاميكازي. شكّل ريتش على الفور مجموعة انتحارية ، وكانت هي نفسها أول شخص يأخذ التعهد: "بموجب هذا. أتقدم طواعية للانضمام إلى المجموعة الانتحارية كطيار لقنبلة طائرة شراعية بشرية. وأنا أفهم تمامًا أن التوظيف بهذه الصفة سوف يستلزم موتي ". كما اتضح ، لم يتم استدعاء هي ولا أي شخص آخر لتقديم تلك التضحية ، حيث لم يتم نشر السرب مطلقًا.

جاء ريتش ليطير بطريق غير مباشر. ولدت في هيرشبيرج بألمانيا عام 1912 ، وسعت في الأصل إلى مهنة الطب ، وكانت تحلم بأن تصبح طبيبة تبشيرية طيران في إفريقيا. سرعان ما تجاوز شغفها بالهواء اهتمامها بالطب ، وتركت كلية الطب لتصبح طيارًا شراعيًا بدوام كامل. (تم منع ألمانيا من بناء "طائرات حربية" بعد الحرب العالمية الأولى ، مما يعني أن معظم الطائرات التي تم إنشاؤها في ألمانيا تم بناؤها بدون محركات.) عملت كطيار حيلة في الأفلام ، لكنها ميزت نفسها حقًا في المنافسة ، حيث وضعت المرأة الرقم القياسي العالمي في الطيران الشراعي بدون توقف في عام 1931 ، (وهو رقم قياسي تضاعف أكثر من الضعف في عام 1933) ، والرقم القياسي العالمي للسيدات في الطيران الشراعي من نقطة إلى نقطة في عام 1939 ، والرقم القياسي للسيدات في الرحلات الجوية بدون توقف في عام 1936 ، و سجل ارتفاع السيدات عام 1934. كانت أول شخص يعبر جبال الألب بطائرة شراعية في عام 1937. وفي عام 1938 ، فازت ببطولة الطيران الشراعي لمسافات طويلة الألمانية.

في عام 1937 ، عينها الجنرال إرنست أوديت كقبطان طيران مدني وطيار اختبار لـ Luftwaffe. لقد شعرت بسعادة غامرة تجاهها ، فقد كانت وفتوافا "حراس بوابات السلام". كانت نازية مخلصة ومثالية ، وقد عشقت أدولف هتلر ورفضت تصديق تقارير معسكرات الاعتقال والتعذيب. مهارتها وتفانيها جعلتها رمزًا قويًا للرايخ. استفادت Luftwaffe بالكامل من مواهبها. اختبرت كل شيء من مروحيتهم الأولى ، في عام 1937 ، إلى النماذج الأولية للطائرة V-1 ، في عام 1944. (كان الطيار التجريبي بحاجة إلى هذه الطائرة بدون طيار لأن الأجنحة أظهرت ميلًا إلى السقوط. تم بناء مقعد خاص فيها. الأنف ، التي يمكن لريتش من خلالها مشاهدة سلوك الأجنحة وتقديم تقرير عنها بعد الهبوط. تم اختيارها لهذه الاختبارات لأنها أثبتت بالفعل قدرة رائعة على تحمل الإجهاد البدني.) قامت بمهمات أيضًا. في عام 1940 ، أحضرت القوات الألمانية إلى خط ماجينو عبر النقل بالطائرات الشراعية. في عام 1942 ، منحها هتلر وسام الصليب الحديدي من الدرجة الثانية لجهودها في قطع الخطوط الفولاذية المتدلية من البالونات الإنجليزية ، مرة أخرى في طائرة شراعية. في عام 1944 ، اختبرت صاروخ Messerschmitt 163 الذي يعمل بالصواريخ ، والذي حلقته بسرعة تصل إلى 500 ميل في الساعة. خلال رحلتها الخامسة من طراز ME 163 ، خرجت عن السيطرة وهبطت بالطائرة. على الرغم من إصاباتها ، تمكنت من كتابة تقرير كامل قبل أن تفقد وعيها. منحها هتلر الصليب الحديدي من الدرجة الأولى لتلك الرحلة. خلال الحفل الذي أقيم في بيرشتسجادن ، عرفته بفكرتها عن فرقة انتحارية.

منذ نوفمبر 1943 ، تمركز Reitsch على طول الجبهة الشرقية في روسيا ، مع الجنرال روبرت ريتر vonGreim. في 26 أبريل 1945 ، سافروا إلى برلين ، حيث كان من المفترض أن يتولى غريم قيادة وفتوافا. أصيبت طائرتهم بنيران سوفيتية مضادة للطائرات ، وأصيب غريم. مكثوا في برلين لمدة 3 أيام ، كضيوف هتلر ، ولكن في 29 أبريل ، أمرهم بالعودة إلى روسيا وحشد القوات الألمانية المتبقية. احتج ريتش في البداية. أرادت أن يُسمح لها بالموت مع الفوهرر. لكن في النهاية ، فعلت هي وجريم ما قيل لهما ، فهربتا من برلين تمامًا مع إحكام الخناق الروسي حولها. وصلوا إلى مقر الأدميرال كارل دونيتز ، لكن كلاهما تم القبض عليهما في النهاية من قبل قوات الحلفاء. خلال اعتقالها من قبل الجيش الأمريكي ، شهدت ريتش على "تفكك" شخصية هتلر في الأيام الأخيرة من الحرب. لكن بعد ذلك بوقت قصير ، قالت إنها شعرت "بالاشمئزاز" مما شاهدته في الرايخ الثالث.

على الرغم من أنها قد تكون خاب أملها في النهاية من النازية ، إلا أن ريتش لم تفقد حبها للسماء. سجلت عشرات الأرقام القياسية العالمية ، وشاركت في عدد من المسابقات. كانت في كثير من الأحيان المرأة الوحيدة المتنافسة. كما واصلت العمل كطيار بحث. في عام 1959 ، سافرت إلى الهند ، حيث أصبحت صديقة مع إنديرا غاندي ورئيس الوزراء نهرو. في عام 1962 ، أسست المدرسة الوطنية للطائرات الشراعية في غانا ، حيث مكثت فيها حتى عام 1966. كانت دائمًا منجذبة إلى الأشخاص في السلطة ، وكانت صديقة لرئيس غانا ، كوامي نكروما. توفيت في فرانكفورت عام 1979 ، بعد عام من تسجيل رقم قياسي آخر لمسافة الطائرات الشراعية للسيدات.

حنا ريتش ، على حد تعبيرها:
السماء مملكتيبواسطة حنا ريتش


هانا ريتش ، الطيار الأول للمرأة في اختبار الدين ، sugerează crearea echivalentului nazist al unei echipe kamikaze de atacatori sinucigași & # 238n timp ce vizitează Adolf Hitler la Berchtesgaden. هتلر هو صاحب فكرة رائعة.

Reitsch s-a născut & # 238n 1912 & # 238n Hirschberg ، Germania. A prăsit școala de Medicină (voia să fie Medic misionar) pentru a & # 238ncepe să zboare cu normă & # 238ntreagă și a devenit un expert al pilotului de planor، avioanele au fost avioane fără motor pe-auentru de letru Regulile Stricte cu privire la construirea „avioanelor de război“ după război mondial. Pe l & # 226ngă faptul că a c & # 226știgat experienceiență cu planorii، Reitsch a făcut، de asemenea، cascadorii de zbor pentru filme. & # 206n 1934، a & # 238nregistrat recordul mondial de altitudine pentru femei (9.184 de metri). النازية arzătoare și معجب بضربة هتلر ، منذ فترة طويلة من الزمن ، رعاية نسائية أولية. & # 206n 1937، Luftwaffe، forța aeriană Germană، a pus-o să lucreze ca pilot de testare. Reitsch a & # 238mbrățișat această ocazie de a zbura ca parte a ceea ce ea a number "păzitorii Germaniei pentru portalurile păcii". Printre realizările sale semnale a fost testarea unui proto-elicopter & # 238n 1939.

Reitsch sa apropiat mai mult dec & # 226t oricare altă femeie de a vedea lupta reală & # 238n timpul celui de-al doilea război mondial، depun & # 226nd trupe germane de-a lungul liniei Maginot & # 238n Franța، & # 238n timperman din 1940 cu avionul. Ea a c & # 226știgat o Cruce de Fier، clasa a II-a، pentru că și-a riscat viața & # 238ncerc & # 226nd să taie cabluri britanice de balot-balon (baloanele erau lovituri fără echipaj، legate & # 238ntr-un singur loc، din care cablurile de oțel se agățau، astfel & # 238nc & # 226t să & # 238nfige aripile și elicele aeronavelor inamice). Printre avioanele de război pe care le-a testat se număra Messerschmitt 163، un interceptor cu putere de rachetă pe care a zburat-o 500 mph. & # 206n timp ce a testat ME 163 a cincea oară، ea a scăpat de sub control și a aterizat prin accident (deși a fost rănită & # 238n timpul accidentului، totuși a reușit să cincea orară، ea a scăpat de sub control și a aterizat prin accident # 238nainte de a-și trece rănile). Pentru aceasta، Hitler i-a acordat o Cruce de Fier، clasa I.

& # 206n 1944، & # 238n timp ce primea această a doua Cruce de Fier de la Hitler la Berchtesgaden، ea a aruncat idea unei echipe de suicid Luftwaffe de piloți care ar zbura versiuni versiuni special Concepute ale V-1. مبدئيًا ، كان هتلر يتمتع بقدرة كبيرة على الاستجابة ، ولا يمكن اعتباره أمرًا مناسبًا لاستخدامه بكفاءة. دار Angajamentul lui Reitsch l-a يلتقي بالبحث في منظور proiectării unor astfel de avioane ، لحظة & # 238n رعاية alcătuit un grup suicid și a fost primul care a luat următoarea promisiune: „Prezent. & # 238n mod تطوعي ، mă & # 238nscriu & # 238n grupul sinucigaș ca pilot al o glisier-bombă umană. Am & # 238nțeles pe deplin că angajarea & # 238n această calitate va atrage propria moarte. “Echipa nu a fost niciodat dislocată.

Reitsch a fost unul dintre ultimii oameni care l-au văzut & # 238n viață pe pe Hitler. La 26 aprilie 1945، ea a zburat la Berlin cu generalul Ritter von Greim، care avea s i se dea comanda Luftwaffe. Greim a fost rănit c & # 226nd avionul lui Reitsch a fost lovit de un incendiu antiaerian sovietic. După ce și-a luat rămas bun de la Fuhrer، ascunsă & # 238n buncărul său، ea a zburat Greim & # 238napoi din Berlin.

După război ، Reitsch a fost capturat și internat de armata americană. لا يهتم هتلر بشخصيته "ديزنغرايا" الشخصية إلا أنه سيهتم باحتضانه. C & # 226nd a fost lansat ، Reitsch a المستمر să stabilească Recorduri ، inclusiv să devină prima femeie care a zburat un planor peste Alpi. & # 206n 1951، ea și-a publicat autobiografia، إستي زبورول عبر a mea ، iar din 1962 p & # 226nă & # 238n 1966 a fost Director Al școlii naționale de alunecare din Ghana. Ea a murit & # 238n 1979، la 65 de ani، la numai un an după ce a stabilit un nou record de distanță pentru planor pentru femei. & # 206n cariera sa، a stabilit peste 40 de recorduri mondiale pentru avioane cu volan și fără motor.


قام طيار الاختبار ريتش بتقديم فرقة انتحارية لهتلر - 28 فبراير 1944 - HISTORY.com

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تقترح هانا ريتش ، أول طيار اختبار في العالم ، إنشاء ما يعادل فرقة كاميكازي من الانتحاريين أثناء زيارة أدولف هتلر في بيرشتسجادن. كان هتلر أقل حماسًا للفكرة.

ولد Reitsch عام 1912 في Hirschberg بألمانيا. تركت كلية الطب (كانت تريد أن تصبح طبيبة تبشيرية) لتتفرغ للطيران بدوام كامل ، وأصبحت طيار خبير بالطائرات الشراعية - كانت الطائرات الشراعية عبارة عن طائرات بدون محرك طورها الألمان للتهرب من القواعد الصارمة المتعلقة ببناء "الطائرات الحربية" بعد الحرب العالمية الأولى. بالإضافة إلى اكتساب الخبرة مع الطائرات الشراعية ، قام Reitsch أيضًا بمغامرة الطيران في الأفلام. في عام 1934 ، حطمت الرقم القياسي العالمي لارتفاع النساء (9184 قدمًا). كونها نازية متحمسة ومعجبة بهتلر ، تم تعيينها قبطان طيران فخري من قبل الفوهرر ، وهي أول امرأة تحصل على مثل هذا الشرف. في عام 1937 ، وضعها سلاح الجو الألماني Luftwaffe للعمل كطيار اختبار. انتهزت ريتش هذه الفرصة للطيران كجزء مما وصفته بـ "حراس بوابات السلام" في ألمانيا. من بين إنجازاتها البارزة اختبار طائرة هليكوبتر أولية في عام 1939.


قام طيار الاختبار ريتش بتقديم فرقة انتحارية لهتلر - 28 فبراير 1944 - HISTORY.com

TSgt جو سي.

27 فبراير في & quotOn This Day In History & quot

تقترح هانا ريتش ، أول طيار اختبار في العالم ، إنشاء ما يعادل فرقة كاميكازي من الانتحاريين أثناء زيارة أدولف هتلر في بيرشتسجادن. كان هتلر أقل حماسًا للفكرة.

ولد Reitsch عام 1912 في Hirschberg بألمانيا. تركت كلية الطب (كانت تريد أن تصبح طبيبة تبشيرية) لتتفرغ للطيران بدوام كامل ، وأصبحت طيارًا خبيرًا في الطائرات الشراعية - كانت الطائرات الشراعية عبارة عن طائرات بدون محرك طورها الألمان للتهرب من القواعد الصارمة المتعلقة ببناء "الطائرات الحربية" بعد الحرب العالمية الأولى. بالإضافة إلى اكتساب الخبرة مع الطائرات الشراعية ، قام Reitsch أيضًا بمغامرة الطيران في الأفلام. في عام 1934 ، حطمت الرقم القياسي العالمي لارتفاع النساء (9184 قدمًا). كونها نازية متحمسة ومعجبة بهتلر ، تم تعيينها قبطان طيران فخري من قبل الفوهرر ، وهي أول امرأة تحصل على مثل هذا الشرف. في عام 1937 ، وضعها سلاح الجو الألماني Luftwaffe للعمل كطيار اختبار. انتهزت ريتش هذه الفرصة للطيران كجزء مما وصفته بـ "حراس بوابات السلام" في ألمانيا. من بين إنجازاتها البارزة اختبار طائرة هليكوبتر أولية في عام 1939.

اقتربت ريتش أكثر من أي امرأة أخرى من رؤية قتال حقيقي خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية ، حيث قامت بإيداع القوات الألمانية على طول خط ماجينو في فرنسا خلال غزو الألمان عام 1940 بطائرة شراعية. فازت بجائزة صليب حديدي من الدرجة الثانية ، لمجازفتها بحياتها في محاولة قطع كابلات البالونات البريطانية (كانت البالونات مناطيد غير مأهولة ، مقيدة في مكان واحد ، تتدلى منها الكابلات الفولاذية لإلحاق الضرر بأجنحة ومراوح طائرات العدو) . من بين الطائرات الحربية التي اختبرتها كانت طائرة Messerschmitt 163 ، وهي صاروخ اعتراض بقوة الصواريخ حلقت بسرعة 500 ميل في الساعة. أثناء اختبار ME 163 للمرة الخامسة ، خرجت عن السيطرة وتحطمت (على الرغم من إصابتها أثناء الحادث ، إلا أنها تمكنت مع ذلك من تدوين ما حدث بالضبط قبل وفاتها من إصاباتها). لهذا ، منحها هتلر صليبًا حديديًا من الدرجة الأولى.

أثناء تلقيها هذا الصليب الحديدي الثاني من هتلر في بيرشتسجادن في عام 1944 ، طرحت فكرة فرقة انتحارية من الطيارين من طراز Luftwaffe الذين سيطيرون بنسخ مصممة خصيصًا من V-1. تم تأجيل هتلر في البداية بالفكرة ، فقط لأنه لم يعتقد أنها استخدام فعال أو فعال للموارد. لكن التزام Reitsch أقنعه بالتحقيق في احتمال تصميم مثل هذه الطائرات ، وعند هذه النقطة شكلت مجموعة Suicide Group وكانت أول من أخذ التعهد التالي: "أنا بموجب هذا ... أتقدم طواعية للانضمام إلى المجموعة الانتحارية كطيار قنبلة طائرة شراعية بشرية. أفهم تمامًا أن العمل بهذه الصفة سينطوي على موتي ". لم يتم نشر الفرقة قط.

كان ريتش أحد آخر الأشخاص الذين رأوا هتلر على قيد الحياة. في 26 أبريل 1945 ، سافرت إلى برلين مع الجنرال ريتر فون غريم ، الذي كان سيُعطى قيادة سلاح الجو الألماني. أصيب غريم عندما أصيبت طائرة ريتش بنيران مضادة للطائرات السوفيتية. بعد أن ودعت الفوهرر ، المختبئ بعيدًا في مخبئه ، طارت غريم عائدة من برلين.


جدل حنا ريتش

لكن لا يتفق الجميع مع تكريم هانا ريتش ، ليس بسبب قدراتها وأهميتها التاريخية كطيار أنثى ، ولكن لدورها كنازية وعلاقاتها الوثيقة بأدولف هتلر.

لا يتضمن موقع WOAW أي معلومات سيرة ذاتية متعلقة بالنازية على Hanna Reitsch (على الرغم من عدم وجود الكثير من المعلومات بشكل عام على الصفحة المعنية). من خلال عدم حساب مساهماتها في الحزب النازي ، من الواضح أنهم لا يتغاضون عن مشاركتها في الرايخ الثالث. لكن الفشل في الكشف عن ذلك له آثار أيضًا ، لا سيما عندما تم تحقيق بعض إنجازاتها أو الاعتراف بها في اتصال مباشر مع دورها في الحرب العالمية الثانية وألمانيا هتلر. من الواضح أن مثل هذه المواقف يمكن أن تخلق نوعًا من المعضلة الأخلاقية - ما الذي يجب على المرء أن يفعله؟

من كانت؟

ولدت ريتش في هيرشبيرج بألمانيا وبدأت التدريب على الطيران في مدرسة الطيران الشراعي في جروناو عندما كانت في العشرين من عمرها. وأثناء دراستها للطب في برلين ، التحقت بمدرسة طيران هواة البريد الجوي الألمانية للطائرات التي تعمل بالطاقة. انتهى بها الأمر لترك كلية الطب لتصبح طيار / مدربة طائرة شراعية بدوام كامل في هورنبرج في بادن فورتمبيرغ. تعاقدت مع شركة أوفا للأفلام كطيار حيلة ، وحققت رقمًا قياسيًا غير رسمي لتحمل النساء.

في يناير 1934 ، سافرت إلى أمريكا الجنوبية في رحلة استكشافية لدراسة الظروف الحرارية. أثناء وجودها في الأرجنتين ، أصبحت أول امرأة تحصل على شارة C فضية (والمرتبة الخامسة والعشرين التي تفوز بذلك بين طياري الطائرات الشراعية في العالم).

في عام 1935 أصبحت طيار اختبار ثم التحقت في وقت لاحق بمدرسة تدريب الخطوط الجوية المدنية.


أيام هتلر الأخيرة في القبو

الاسم: الأب وأومليلين حنا ريتش
الرتبة: Flugkapit & aumln [قائد الطائرة - اللقب الفخري الممنوح لإنجاز الطيران المتميز]
تاريخ الميلاد: 29 مارس 1912
الحالة الاجتماعية أعزب
المهنة: طيار اختبار وخبير أبحاث طيران
الجنسية: ألماني.
العنوان: قلعة ليوبولدز كرون ، سالزبورغ ، النمسا
الوضع السياسي: عضو غير حزبي
الأوسمة: صليب حديدي درجة أولى

هذا التقرير هو قصة الأيام الأخيرة من الحرب كما جربتها هانا ريتش ، طيار الاختبار الألماني المعروف وخبير أبحاث الطيران. لا تتظاهر قصتها بإضافة أي تفاصيل مثيرة إلى ما هو معروف بالفعل في تلك الأيام ، إنها بالأحرى سرد شاهد عيان لما حدث بالفعل في أعلى الأماكن خلال اللحظات الأخيرة من الحرب.

ربما تكون روايتها عن الرحلة إلى برلين لإبلاغ هتلر وإقامتها في قبو F & uumlhrer دقيقة بنفس الدقة التي تم الحصول عليها في تلك الأيام الماضية ، على الرغم من أن مصير هتلر "هل مات أم لم يمت" تمت الإجابة فقط إلى حد وصف الحالة العقلية واليأس في موقف اللحظة الأخيرة ، والتي يجب استخلاص الآراء الفردية منها. رأيها هو أن الوضع التكتيكي والظروف المادية لهتلر جعلت أي أفكار عن هروبه غير قابلة للتصور.


مركز الاستجواب البريطاني في باد نيندورف ، المعروف رسميًا باسم مركز الاستجواب التفصيلي للخدمات المشتركة رقم 74 في منطقة غرب أوروبا [CSDIC WEA] حيث تم استجواب هانا ريتش بموجب
إشراف أمريكي

قصتها رائعة فقط من حيث أنها لعبت دورًا صغيرًا في أحداث نهاية الحرب وأنها كانت على اتصال شخصي مع النازيين الكبار كما حلّت هذه الغاية في ذلك الوقت. إنه أمر مثير للاهتمام أيضًا لأنه من المحتمل أن يكون Reitsch واحدًا من آخر ، إن لم يكن آخر شخص خرج من الملجأ على قيد الحياة. يتم تقييم معلوماتها على أنها موثوقة ومن الممكن أن تلقي قصتها بعض الضوء أو ربما تكون بمثابة مساعدة لمعرفة أكمل لما حدث خلال الأيام الأخيرة من برلين والحرب.

في بعض الأحيان لا تكون متأكدة من الأسماء والأوقات المحددة. الأسماء تهرب منها. في كثير من الحالات ، كانت جهات الاتصال ذات الصلة محدودة للغاية من حيث أنها تتعلق بالأيام القليلة الماضية فقط. قد تكون أوقاتها غير دقيقة لأن أحداث تلك الأيام تلت بعضها البعض بمثل هذه الاضطرابات لدرجة أنها غالبًا ما تكون غير قادرة على تذكر التسلسل الصحيح للأحداث.

وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن الكثير من التقرير يتعلق بالتفسير النازي والألماني لمصطلح "الشرف". رايتش نفسها ، في إجابتها على الاستفسارات ، تزن بعناية جوانب "الشرف" في كل ملاحظة ثم تقدم إجاباتها بعناية ولكن بصدق. يصل استخدام الكلمة عمليًا إلى عقدة صنم مع المصدر ويكاد يكون تجسيدًا غير متناسب لفلسفتها بأكملها. إن تكرارها المستمر للكلمة ليس بأي حال من الأحوال واضحًا لها كما هو الحال بالنسبة للمحقق ، ولا المعنى هو نفسه ، كما أنها لا تدرك الاستخدام غير اللائق للكلمة. لذلك ، في كل مرة تظهر كلمة "شرف" يتم تقديمها اعتذارًا في الاقتباسات.

تروي قصتها في شكل محادثة ، وعلى الرغم من أنها مستنسخة جزئيًا بهذه الطريقة هنا ، إلا أنه لا يوجد ادعاء بأن الاقتباسات في جميع الحالات دقيقة ، حيث يتم تقديمها ببساطة كما تتذكرها. إذا تم الأخذ في الاعتبار أن هذه المادة هي بيان بآرائها وملاحظاتها الخاصة ، فيمكن اعتبار المعلومات موثوقة تمامًا.

الرحلة إلى برلين:

أرسل هتلر برقية إلى ميونيخ في 24 أبريل [1945] إلى اللفتنانت جنرال ريتر فون جريم ، يأمره بتقديم تقرير إلى Reichschancellery بشأن مسألة ملحة للغاية. كانت مشكلة الدخول إلى برلين في ذلك الوقت بالفعل مشكلة محفوفة بالمخاطر للغاية ، حيث كان الروس قد حاصروا المدينة عمليًا. ومع ذلك ، قرر غريم أنه من خلال الاستفادة من حنا ريتش كطيار ، يمكن أن يتم المدخل عن طريق أوتوجيرو ، والتي يمكن أن تهبط في الشوارع أو في حدائق Reichschancellery.

خلال ليلة 25 إلى 26 أبريل ، وصل ريتش وجريم إلى ريكلين ، مستعدين على الفور للسفر إلى برلين. ومع ذلك ، فقد تضرر autogiro الوحيد المتاح في ذلك اليوم ، فقد تقرر أن طيار Feldwebel ، الذي نقل ألبرت سبير إلى F & uumlhrer قبل يومين. يجب أن يطير بجريم بسبب التجربة التي قدمتها له الرحلة السابقة. بعض الإحساس بالمسؤولية تجاه جريم ، كطيار شخصي وصديق له ، جعل ريتش يتوسل ليأخذ معه. كان من المقرر استخدام Focke-Wolf 190 ، والتي كانت تحتوي على مساحة ظهر لراكب واحد مرتبة خلف مقعد الطيار. تم حشو Reitsch في الذيل من خلال فتحة طوارئ صغيرة.

تم أخذ أربعين مقاتلاً للطيران.

فور الإقلاع تقريبًا ، اشتبكوا مع الطائرات الروسية. قادتهم رحلة جارية للتنقل عبر التحوط إلى مطار جاتو ، وهو حقل برلين الوحيد الذي لا يزال في أيدي الألمان. نجحت طائرتهم الخاصة في العبور من خلال بضع طلقات من الجناح ولكن التكلفة كانت باهظة بالنسبة للمقاتلين الداعمين.

تم الهبوط في جاتو من خلال مزيد من الهجمات الشديدة من قبل المقاتلين الروس الذين كانوا يقصفون الميدان عند وصولهم. ما تبقى من الطائرات الألمانية اشتبك مع الروس بينما هبطت طائرة Greim بنجاح. جرت محاولات على الفور للاتصال بالمستشارية ، ولكن نظرًا لأن جميع الخطوط قد خرجت ، فقد تقرر الطيران على متن Fieseler Storch المتاح للمسافة المتبقية والهبوط على مسافة قريبة من ملجأ هتلر.

مع وجود Greim في الضوابط و Reitsch كراكب ، أقلعت الطائرة تحت غطاء دوامي من معارك الكلاب الألمانية الروسية. At a height of a few meters Greim managed to get away from the field and continue at tree-top level toward the Brandenburger Tor. Street fighting was going on below them and countless Russian aircraft were in the air. After a few minutes of flight, heavy fire tore out the bottom of the plane and severely injured Greim's right leg. By reaching over his shoulders, Reitsch took control of the craft and by dodging and squirming closely along the ground, brought the plane down on the East-West axis.

Heavy Russian artillery and small-arm fire was sheeting the area with shrapnel as they landed. A passing vehicle was commandeered to take them to Hitler's shelter, with Greim receiving first aid for his shattered foot on the way.

Arrival at Hitler's Shelter:

Greim and Reitsch arrived in the Bunker between 6 and 7 o'clock on the evening of the 26 April. First to meet them was Frau Göbbels, who fell upon Reitsch with tears and kisses, expressing her astonishment that anyone still possessed the courage and loyalty to come to the Führer, in stark contrast to all those who had deserted him. Greim was immediately taken to the operation room where Hitler's physician tended the injured foot.

Hitler came into the sick room, according to Reitsch, with his face showing deep gratitude over Greim's coming. He remarked something to the effect that even a soldier has the right to disobey an order when everything indicates that to carry it out would be futile and hopeless. Greim then reported his presence in the official manner.

Hitler's Denunciation of Göring

H itler: "Do you know why I have called you?"

Hitler: "Because Hermann Göring has betrayed and deserted both me and his Fatherland. Behind my back he has established connections with the enemy. His action was a mark of cowardice. And against my orders he has gone to save himself at Berchtesgaden. From there he sent me a disrespectful telegram. He said that I had once named him as my successor and that now, as I was no longer able to rule from Berlin he was prepared to rule from Berchtesgaden in my place. He closes the wire by stating that if he had no answer from me by nine-thirty on the date of the wire he would assume my answer to be in the affirmative".

The scene Reitsch describes as "touchingly dramatic," that there were tears in the Führer's eyes as he told them of Göring's treachery, that his head sagged, that his face was deathly pallid, and that the uncontrolled shaking of his hands made the message flutter wildly as he handed it to Greim. The Führer's face remained deathly earnest as Greim read. Then every muscle in it began to twitch and his breath came in explosive puffs only with effort did he gain sufficient control to actually shout: "An ultimatum!! A crass ultimatum!! Now nothing remains. Nothing spared me. No allegiances are kept, no honor lived up to, no disappointments that I have not had, no betrayals that I have not experienced, and now this above all else. Nothing remains. Every wrong has already been done me".

As Reitsch explains it, the scene was in the typical "et tu Brute" manner, full of remorse and self-pity. It was long before he could gather sufficient control to continue.

With eyes hard and half-closed and in a voice unusually low he went on: "I immediately had Göring arrested as a traitor to the Reich, took from him all his offices, and removed him from all organizations. That is why I have called you to me. I hereby declare you Göring's successor as OberbefehIshaber der Luftwaffe. In the name of the German people I give you my hand".

"To Die For the 'Honor' of the Luftwaffe"

Greim and Reitsch were deeply stunned with the news of Göring's betrayal. As with one mind they both grasped Hitler's hands and begged to be allowed to remain in the Bunker, and with their own lives atone for the great wrong that Göring had perpetrated against the Führer, against the German people, and against the Luftwaffe itself. To save the "honor" of the flyers who had died, to reestablish the "honor" of the Luftwaffe that Göring had destroyed, and to guarantee the "honor" of their land in the eyes of the world, they begged to remain. Hitler agreed to all of this and told them they might stay and told them too that their decision would long be remembered in the history of the Luftwaffe.

It had been previously arranged with operations at Rechlin that an aircraft was to come in the next day to take Greim and Reitsch out of Berlin. Now that they decided to stay it was impossible to get the information out. Rechlin, in the meantime, was sending plane after plane, each shot down in turn by the Russians. Finally on 27 April a JU 52, loaded with SS guards and ammunition, managed to land on the East-West traffic axis, but because Reitsch and Greim had intended to stay, was sent back empty.

Hitler Sees the Cause As Lost

Later that first evening Hitler called Reitsch to him in his room. She remembers that his face was deeply lined and that there was a constant film of moisture in his eyes. In a very small voice he said, "Hanna, You belong to those who will die with me. Each of us has a vial of poison such as this," with which he handed her one for herself and one for Greim.

"I do not wish that one of us falls to the Russians alive, nor do I wish our bodies to be found by them. Each person is responsible for destroying his body so that nothing recognizable remains. Eva and I will have our bodies burned. You will devise your own method. Will you please so inform von Greim? "

Reitsch sank to a chair in tears, not, she claims, over the certainty of her own end but because for the first time she knew that the Führer saw the cause as lost. Through the sobs she said: "Mein Führer, why do you stay? Why do you deprive Germany of your life? When the news was released that you would remain in Berlin to the last, the people were amazed with horror. 'The Führer must live so that Germany can live,' the people said. Save yourself, Mein Führer, that is the will of every. German".

Hitler: "No Hanna, if I die it is for the 'honor' of our country, it is because as a soldier, I must obey my own command that I would defend Berlin to the last. My dear girl, I did not intend it so, I believed firmly that Berlin would be saved at the banks of the Oder. Everything we had was moved to hold that position. You may believe that when our best efforts failed, I was the most horror-struck of all. Then when the encirclement of the city began the knowledge that there were three million of my countrymen still in Berlin made it necessary that I stay to defend them. By staying I believed that all the troops of the land would take example through my act and come to the rescue of the city. I hoped that they would rise to super-human efforts to save me and thereby save my three million countrymen. But, my Hanna, I still have hope. The army of General Wenck is moving up from the South. He must and will drive the Russians back long enough to save our people. Then we will fall back to hold again".

It appeared almost as if he believed this himself and as the conversation closed he was walking about the room with quick, stumbling strides, his hand clasped behind him and his head bobbing up and down as he walked. Although his words spoke of hope, Hanna claims that his face showed that the War was over.

Hanna returned to Greim's bedside, handed him the poison and then decided with him. should the end really come, that they would quickly drink the contents. of the vial and then each pull the pin from a heavy grenade and hold it tightly to their bodies.

Late in the night of 26 to 27 of April the first heavy barrage bracketed the Chancellery. The splattering of heavy shells and the crashing of falling buildings directly above the air-raid shelter tightened the nervous strain of everyone so that here and there deep sobbing came through the doors. Hanna spent the night tending Greim, who was in great pain, and in getting in the Chancellery grounds before morning.

Hitler's Guests in the Shelter

The next morning she was introduced to the other occupants and learned for the first time the identity of all those who were facing the end with the Führer. Present in the elaborate shelder on the 27 April were Göbbels and his wife with their six children State Secretary Naumann: Hitler's right hand, Reichsleiter Martin Bormann Hewel from Ribbentrop's office Admiral Voss as representative from Dönitz General Krebs of the infantry and his adjutant Burgdorf Hitler's personal pilot, Hans Baur another pilot Beetz Eva Braun SS Obergruppenführer Fegelein as liaison between Himmler and Hitler and husband of Eva Braun's sister Hitler's personal Physician, Dr. Stumpfegger Oberst von Below, Hitler's Luftwaffe Adjutant Dr. Lorenz representing Reichspresse chief Dr. Dietrich for the German press two of Hitler's secretaries, a Frau Christian, wife of General der Flieger Christian and a Fräulein Krüger and various SS orderlies and messengers. Reitsch claims that these composed the entire assembly.

A regular visitor during the last days was Reichsjugendführer Axman who was commanding a Hitlerjugend division committed to the defense of the city. From Axman came current information as to the ground situation against the Russians which was well mirrored by the increasingly despondent manner of each visit.

Another Betrayal

Late in the afternoon of the 27th Obergruppenführer Fegelein disappeared. Shortly thereafter it was reported that he had been captured on the outskirts of Berlin disguised in civilian clothes, claiming to be a refugee. The news of his capture was immediately brought to Hitler who instantly ordered him shot. The rest of the evening Fegelein's betrayal weighed heavily on the Führer and in conversation he indicated a half-way doubt as to Himmler's position, fearing that Fegelein's desertion might have been known and even condoned by the SS leader.

Observations on Shelter Occupants

Reitsch had little contact with most of the people in the shelter, being mostly occupied in nursing von Greim, but she did have the opportunity to speak to many of them and observe their reaction, under the trying conditions of the last days in the Bunker. It is believed that she attempts to relate her observations truthfully and that her reactions are honestly conceived. It must be remembered that prior to her arrival in the Bunker Reitsch had but small contact with most of these individuals and that her previous opinions regarding them were at a rather low level. Of the people she was able to observe closely the Göbbels family probably stands out.

Doctor Göbbels

She describes Göbbels as being insanely incensed over Göring's treachery. He strode about his small, luxurious quarters like an animal, muttering vile accusations concerning the Luftwaffe leader and what he had done. The precarious military situation of the moment was Göring's fault. Their present plight was Göring's fault. Should the war be lost, as it certainly now seemed it would be, that too would be Göring's fault.

"That swine," Göbbels said, "who has always set himself up as the Führer's greatest support now does not have the courage to stand beside him. As if that were not enough, he wants to replace the Führer as head of the State. He, an incessant incompetent, who has destroyed his Fatherland with his mishandling and stupidity, now wants to lead the entire nation. By this alone he proves that he was never truly one of us, that at heart he was always weak and a traitor".

All this, as Hanna saw it, was in the best theatrical manner, with much hand waving and fine gestures, made even more grotesque by the jerky up-and-down hobbling as he strode about the room. When he wasn't railing about Göring he spoke to the world about the example those in the Bunker were setting for history. As on a platform and gripping a chair-back like a rostrum he said: "We are teaching the world how men die for their 'honor.' Our deaths shall be an eternal example to all Germans, to all friends and enemies alike. One day the whole world will acknowledge that we did right, that we sought to protect the world against Bolshevism with our lives. One day it will be set down in the history of all time".

It appears that Göbbels exercised his greatest ability to the very last. The rooms of Göbbels and Reitsch adjoined each other and the doors were usually open. Through them the Göbbels oratory would sound out at any hour of the day or night. And always the talk was of "honor" of "how to die," of "standing true to the Führer to the last," of "setting an example that would long blaze as a holy thing from the pages of history".

One of the last things Reitsch remembers hearing from the lips of the Propaganda master was: "We shall go down for the glory of the Reich so that the name of Germany will live forever". Even Reitsch was moved to conclude that the Göbbels display, in spite of the tenseness of the situation, was a bit overdrawn and out and out theatrical. She claims that in her opinion Göbbels, then as he always had, performed as if he were speaking to a legion of historians who were avidly awaiting and recording every word. She adds that her own dubious opinions regarding Göbbels' mannerisms, his superficiality, and studied oratory, were well substantiated by these outbursts. She claims too, that after listening to these tirades she and von Greim often asked each other, with a sad, head-shaking attitude, "Are these the people who ruled our country?"

Frau Göbbels

Frau Göbbels she described as a very brave woman, whose control, which was at most times strong, did break down now and then to pitiful spasms of weeping. Her main concern was her children, and in their presence her manner was always delightful and cheery. Much of her day was occupied in keeping the children's clothes clean and tidy, and as they had only the clothes they wore this kept Frau Göbbels occupied. Often she would quickly retire to her room to hide the tears. It appears from Hanna's description that Frau Göbbels probably represented the epitome of Nazi indoctrination.

If the Third Reich could not live she preferred to die with it, nor would she allow her children to outlive it. In recognition of the example she embodied of true German womanhood, Hitler, in the presence of all the occupants of the Bunker, presented her with his personal golden party insignia. "A staunch pillar of the 'honor' upon which National Socialism was built and the German Fatherland founded," was his approximate remark as he pinned it to her dress.

Frau Göbbels often thanked God that she was alive so that she could kill her children to save them from whatever "evil" would follow the collapse. To Reitsch she said, "My dear Hanna, when the end comes you must help me if I become weak about the children. You must help me to help them out of this life. They belong to the Third Reich and to the Führer and if those two things cease to exist there can be no further place for them. But you must help me. My greatest fear is that at the last moment I will be too weak".

It is Hanna's belief that in the last moment she was not weak.

Conclusions that can be safely drawn from Hanna's remarks is that Frau Göbbels was simply one of the most convinced subjects of her own husband's rantings the most pronounced example of the Nazi influence over the women of Germany.

The Göbbels Children

The Göbbels children numbered six. Their names and approximate ages were: Helga, 12 Hilda, 11 Helmut, 9 Holde, 7 Hedda, 5: Heide, 3.

They were the one bright spot of relief in the stark death shadowed life of the Bunker. Reitsch taught them songs which they sang for the Führer and for the injured von Greim. Their talk was full of being in "the cave" with their "Uncle Führer" and in spite of the fact that there were bombs outside, nothing could really harm them as long as they were with him. And anyway "Uncle Führer" had said that soon the soldiers would come and drive the Russians away and then tomorrow they could all go back to play in their garden. Everyone in the Bunker entered into the game of making the time as pleasant as possible for them. Frau Göbbels repeatedly thanked Reitsch for making their last days enjoyable, as Reitsch often gathered them about her and told them long stories of her flying and of the places she had been and the countries she had seen.

It seemed to Reitsch that Hitler's "girl friend" remained studiously true to her position as the "showpiece" in the Führer's circle. Most of her time was occupied in finger nail polishing, changing of clothes for each hour of the day, and all the other little feminine tasks of grooming, combing, and polishing. She seemed to take the prospect of dying with the Führer as quite matter of fact, with an attitude that seemed to say: ". had not the relationship been of 12 long years duration and had she not seriously threatened suicide when Hitler once wanted to be rid of her. This would be a much easier way to die and much more proper. " Her constant remark was "Poor, poor Adolf, deserted by everyone, betrayed by all. Better that ten thousand others die than that he be lost to Germany".

In Hitler's presence she was always charming, and thoughtful of his every comfort. But only while she was with him was she completely in character, for the moment he was out of earshot she would rave about all the ungrateful swine who had deserted their Führer and that each of them should be destroyed. All her remarks had an adolescent tinge and it appeared that the only "good" Germans at the moment were those who were caught in the Bunker and that all the others were traitors because they were not there to die with him. The reasons for her willingness to die with the rest were similar to those of Frau Göbbels. She was simply convinced that whatever followed the Third Reich would not be fit to live in for a true German. Often she expressed sorrow for those people who were unable to destroy themselves as they would forever be forced to live without "honor" and reduced instead to living as human beings without souls.

Reitsch emphasizes that Braun was very apparently of rather shallow mentality, but she also agrees that she was a very beautiful woman. Beyond fulfilling her purpose, Reitsch considers it highly unlikely that Braun had any control or influence over Hitler. The rumor of the last minute marriage ceremony Reitsch considers as highly unlikely, not only because she believes that Hitler had no such intention, but also because the circumstances in the Bunker on the last days would have made such a ceremony ludicrous. Certainly, up to the time Reitsch left the Bunker, hardly a day before Hitler's death was announced, there had not been the slightest mention of such a ceremony. The rumor that there had been children out of the union, Reitsch quickly dismisses as fantastic.

Martin Bormann moved about very little, kept instead very close to his writing desk. He was "recording the momentous events in the Bunker for posterity". Every word, every action went down on his paper. Often he would visit this person or that to scowlingly demand what the exact remark had been that passed between the Führer and the person he had just had an audience with. Things that passed between other occupants of the Bunker were also carefully recorded. This document was to be spirited out of the Bunker at the very last moment so that, according to the modest Bormann, it could, "take its place among the greatest chapters of German history".

أدولف هتلر

Throughout Hanna's stay, in the Bunker Hitler's manner and physical condition sunk to lower and lower depths. At first he seemed to be playing the proper part of leading the defence of Germany and Berlin. And at first this was in some manner possible as communications. were still quite reliable. Messages were telephoned to a Flak tower and from there were radioed out by means of a portable, balloon-suspended aerial. But each day this was more and more difficult until late on the afternoon of the 28th and all day on the 29th communications were almost impossible. On about 22 April, at what was probably the last Hitler war-council in the Reichschancellery, the Führer is said to have been so overcome by the persistently hopeless news that he completely broke down in the presence of all the gathering. The talk in the Bunker, where Hanna heard of the collapse, was that with this display even the most optimistic of Hitler's cohorts tended toward the conviction that the War was irretrievably lost. According to Reitsch, Hitler never physically nor mentally recovered from this conference room collapse.

Occasionally he still seemed to hold to the hope of General Wenck's success in breaking through from the South. He talked of little else, and all day on the 28th and 29th he was mentally planning the tactics that Wenck might use in freeing Berlin. He would stride about the shelter, waving a road map that was fast disintegrating from the sweat of his hands and planning Wenck's campaign with anyone who happened to be listening. When he became overly excited he would snatch the map from where it lay, pace with a quick, nervous stride about the room, and loudly "direct" the city's defence with armies that no longer existed [as even Wenck, unknown to the Führer, had already been routed and destroyed].

Reitsch describes it as a pathetic thing, the picture of a man's complete disintegration. A comic-tragedy of frustration, futility and uselessness. The picture of a man running almost blindly from wall to wall in his last retreat waving papers that fluttered like leaves in his nervous, twitching hands, or sitting stooped and crumpled before his table moving buttons to represent his non-existent armies, back and forth on a sweat-stained map, like a young boy playing at war.

The Possibility That Hitler Still Lives

The possibility that Hitler might have gotten out of the Bunker alive, Reitsch dismisses as completely absurd. She claims that she is convinced that the Hitler she left in the shelter was physically unable to have gotten away. "Had a path been cleared for him from the Bunker to freedom he would not have had the strength to use it," she says. She believes too, that at the very end he had no intention to live, that only the Wenck hope stayed his hand from putting the mass suicide plan into operation. News that Wenck could not get through, she feels, would immediately have set off the well rehearsed plans of destruction.

When confronted with the rumor that Hitler might still be alive in Tyrol and that her own flight to that area, after she had left the Bunker, might be more than coincidental, she appears deeply upset that such opinions are even entertained.

She says only: "Hitler is dead! The man I saw in the shelter could not have lived. He had no reason to live and the tragedy was that he knew it well, knew it perhaps better than anyone else did".

Hanna's Opinion of the Führer

It is apparent from Reitsch's conversation that she held the Führer in high esteem. It is probably also true when she says that her "good" opinion suffered considerably during the closing stages of the War. She is emphatic when she describes the apparent mismanagement she observed and learned of in the Bunker. For instance, Berlin had been depleted of arms to hold the Oder. When that line fell it appeared that no coherent defence plan of Berlin had been prepared, certainly adequate arrangements had not been made to direct the defence from the Bunker. There was no other communication equipment available than the telephone that led only to the Flak tower. It appears that only in the last moment had he decided to direct the battle from the shelter and then did not have the first tools with which to operate. No maps. No battle plans. No radio. Only a hastily prepared messenger service and the one telephone were available. The fact that unknown to Hitler, the Wenck army had been destroyed almost days before, was only one example of the inadequacies. All of which resulted in the Führer of Germany sitting helplessly in his cellar impotently playing at his table-top war.

Reitsch claims that Hitler the idealist died, and his country with him, because of the incompetence of Hitler the soldier and Hitler the statesman. She concludes, still with a faint touch of allegiance, that no one who knew him would deny his idealistically motivated intentions nor could they deny that he was simply infinitely incompetent to rule his country, that one of his great faults was proper character analysis in the people about him which led to the selection of persons equally incompetent to fill important positions. [Most important example: Göring]

She repeatedly remarked that never again must such a person be allowed to gain control of Germany or of any country. But strangely enough she does not appear to hold him personally responsible for many of the wrongs and evils that she recognizes completely and is quick to point out. She says rather, "A great part of the fault lies with those who led him, lured him, criminally misdirected him, and informed him falsely. But that he himself selected the men who led him can never be forgiven".

A Criminal Against the World

"Hitler ended his life as a criminal against the world," but she is quick to add, "he did not begin it that way. At first his thoughts were only of how to make Germany healthy again, how to give his people a life free from economic insufficiencies and social maladjustments. To do this he gambled much, with a stake that no man has the right to jeopardize - the lives of his people. This was the first great wrong, his first great failure. But once the first few risks had been successful, he fell into the faults of every gambler he risked more and more, and each time that he won he was more easily, led to the next gamble". According to Reitsch it all began with the occupation of the Ruhr. This was the first and most difficult gamble of all and when the world did not answer his Ruhr bluff with war, every succeeding risk became progressively easier.

Each success made the enthusiasm of the people greater and this gave him the necessary, support to take the next step. The end-result, Reitsch claims, is that Hitler himself underwent a character change that transformed him from an idealistically motivated benefactor to a grasping, scheming despot, a victim of his own delusions of grandeur. "Never again, she concludes, "in the history of the world must such power be allowed to rest with one man".

Suicide Council

On the night of the 27th to 28th the Russian bombardment of the Chancellery reached the highest pitch it had yet attained. The accuracy to those in the shelter below, was astounding. It seemed as if each shell landed in exactly the same place as the one before, all dead-center on the Chancellery buildings. As this indicated that the Russian ground troops could over-run the area at any, moment, another suicide council was called by the Führer. All plans as to the destruction of the bodies of everyone in the shelter were gone over again. The decision was that as soon as the Russians reached the Chancellery grounds the mass suicide would begin. Last instructions were given as to the use of the poison vials.

The group was as hypnotized with the suicide rehearsal and a general discussion was entered into to determine in which manner the most thorough destruction of the human body could be performed. Then everyone made little speeches swearing allegiance again and again to the Führer and to Germany. Yet, through it all, still ran the faint hope that Wenck might get in the hold long enough to effect an evacuation. But even on the 27th, Reitsch claims, the others paid lip-service to the Wenck hope only to follow the lead of the Führer. Almost everyone had given up all thoughts of being saved, and said so to each other whenever Hitler was not present.

Closing the discussions on the destruction of the bodies there was talk that SS men would be assigned to see that no trace remained.

Throughout the day of the 28th the intensity, of the Russian fire continued while the suicide talk kept pace with the shelling in the shelter below.

The greatest blow of all

A telegram arrived which indicated that the staunch and trusted Himmler had joined Göring on the traitor list. It was like a death blow to the entire assembly. Reitsch claims that men and women alike cried and screamed with rage, fear and desperation, all mixed into one emotional spasm. Himmler the protector of the Reich, now a traitor was impossible. The telegram message was that Himmler had contacted the British and American authorities through Sweden to propose a capituluation to the San Francisco conference. Hitler had raged as a mad man. His color rose to a heated red and his face was virtually unrecognizable. Additional evidence of Himmler's "treachery" was that he had asked not to be identified with the capitulation proposals American authorities were said to have abided by this request, while the British did not.

After the lengthy out-burst Hitler sank into a stupor and for a time the entire Bunker was silent.

Later came the anti-climatic news that the Russians, would make a full force bid to over-run the Chancellery on the morning of the 30th. Even then small-arm fire was beginning to sprinkle the area above the shelter. Ground reports indicated that the Russians were nearing the Potsdamer Platz and were losing thousands of men as they fanatically prepared the positions from which the attack of the next morning was to be launched.

Reitsch claims that everyone again looked to their poison.

Orders to Leave the Shelter

At one-thirty on the morning of 29 April, Hitler, with chalk-white face, came to Greim&rsquos room and slumped down on the edge of the bed. "Our only hope is Wenck," he said, "and to make his entry possible we must call up every available aircraft to cover his approach". Hitler then claimed that he had just been informed that Wenck's guns were already shelling the Russians in Potsdamer Platz.

"Every available plane," Hitler said, "must be called up by, daylight, therefore it is my order to you to return to Rechlin and muster your planes from there. It is the task of your aircraft to destroy the positions from which the Russians will launch their attack on the Chancellery. With Luftwaffe help Wenck may get through. That is the first reason why you must leave the shelter. The second is that Himmler must be stopped," and immediately he mentioned the SS Führer his voice became more unsteady and both his lips and hands trembled. The order to Greim was that if Himmler had actually made the reported contact, and could be found, he should immediately be arrested. "A traitor must never succeed me as Führer! You must get out to insure that he will not".

Greim and Reitsch protested vehemently that the attempt would be futile, that it would be impossible to reach Rechlin, that they preferred to die in the shelter, that the mission could not succeed, that it was insane.

"As soldiers of the Reich," Hitler answered, "it is our holy duty to exhaust every possibility. This is the only chance of success that remains. It is your duty and mine to take it".

Hanna was not convinced. "No, no," she screamed, Nothing can be accomplished now, even if we should get through. Everything is lost, to try to change it now is insane". But Greim thought differently. "Hanna," he said, "we are the only hope for those who remain here. If the chance is just the smallest, we owe it to them to take it. Not to go would rob them of the only light that remains. Maybe Wenck is there. Maybe we can help, but whether we can or cannot, we will go". Hanna, still convinced as to the absurdity of attempting an escape went alone to the Führer while Greim was making his preparations. Through her sobbing she begged, "Mein Führer why, why don't you let us stay?" He looked at her for a moment and said only: "God protect you".

The Leave Taking

Preparations were quickly made and Reitsch is graphic in her description of the leave taking. Below, late Göring's Liaison officer with the Führer and now a staunch Greim-man said, "You must get out. It depends upon you to tell the truth to our people, to save the 'honor' of the Luftwaffe: to save the meaning of Germany for the world". Everyone gave the departing duo some token, something to take back into the world. Everyone wrote quick, last minute letters for them to take along. Reitsch says that she and Greim destroyed all but two letters which were from Göbbels and his wife to their eldest son, by Frau Göbbels first marriage who was then in an Allied prisoner of war camp. These Reitsch still had. Frau Göbbels also gave her a diamond ring from her finger to wear in her memory.


محتويات

The establishment of a suicide squadron (ستافل) was originally proposed by Otto Skorzeny and Hajo Herrmann. The proposal was supported by noted test pilot Hanna Reitsch. The idea proposed was that Germany would use volunteers as suicide pilots in order to overcome the Allies' numerical advantages with their fanatic spirit. The idea had roots in German mythology that was glorified by Nazi propaganda. Hitler was reluctant, but eventually agreed to Reitsch's request to establish and train a suicide attack air unit, with the condition that it would not be operated in combat without his approval. The new unit, nicknamed the "Leonidas Squadron", became part of KG 200. It was named after Leonidas I, king of Sparta, who in 480 BC, after realizing that he was being flanked, dismissed the bulk of his army and resisted the invading Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae with 1400 warriors who fought to the last man against 100,000 Persians.

Reitsch's plan was to attack Allied invasion shipping using the Messerschmitt Me 328 as a suicide weapon which would dive into the sea underneath ships and explode a 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) bomb. Heinrich Himmler approved the idea, and suggested using convicted criminals as pilots. The Luftwaffe's High Command was unenthusiastic Erhard Milch turned the plan down as impractical, and Hermann Göring showed little interest. Adolf Hitler was against the idea of self-sacrifice, believing that it was not in keeping with the German character, and furthermore did not see the war situation as being bad enough to require such extreme measures. Despite this, he allowed Reitsch to proceed with the project after she had shown the plan to him in February 1944. Günther Korten, the Luftwaffe's head of general staff, gave the matter to the commander of KG 200 to deal with. [1]

Over 70 volunteers, mostly young recruits, came forward they were required to sign a declaration which said, "I hereby voluntarily apply to be enrolled in the suicide group as part of a human glider-bomb. I fully understand that employment in this capacity will entail my own death." [2]

Problems were experienced in converting the Me 328, and the decision was taken to use instead a manned version of the V-1 flying bomb, the Fieseler Fi 103R (Reichenberg) however, it never entered operation.

On 9 June 1944, Karl Koller announced that a group of KG-200s equipped with special Focke-Wulf Fw 190s was ready for "total operations". Each aircraft carried a heavy bomb, the weight of which meant that the machines could not carry enough fuel for a return flight. Thus the pilots were only trained using the aircraft as gliders. This project ultimately came to nothing, and Werner Baumbach, by then the commander of KG-200, persuaded his friend Albert Speer that it would be more productive to use the men against Russian power stations rather than against the Allied invasion fleet Speer passed this on to Hitler. [1]

During the Battle for Berlin, the وفتوافا flew "self-sacrifice missions" (Selbstopfereinsätze) against Soviet-held bridges over the Oder River. These 'total missions' were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange from 17 April until 20 April 1945, using any aircraft that were available. ال وفتوافا claimed that the squadron destroyed seventeen bridges. However, the military historian Antony Beevor, writing about the incident, claims that this was exaggerated and that only the railway bridge at Küstrin was definitely destroyed. Beevor comments that "thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success". The missions were called off when the Soviet ground forces reached the vicinity of the squadron's airbase at Jüterbog and were in a position to overrun it. [3]


Hannah Reitsch, a világ első női tesztpilóta, az öngyilkos merénylők kamikázok csoportjának náci ekvivalensének létrehozását javasolja, miközben Adolf Hitlert látogatja Berchtesgadenben. Hitler kevésbé volt lelkes az ötlet iránt.

Reitsch 1912-ben született a németországi Hirschbergben. Elhagyta az orvosi iskolát (misszionáriusi orvosnak akart lenni), hogy teljes munkaidőben vállalja a repülést, és profi siklópilóta lett. A motoros motorok nem voltak olyan repülők, amelyeket a németek fejlesztettek ki annak érdekében, hogy megkerüljék a „háborús repülőgépek” építésére vonatkozó szigorú szabályokat. A siklóernyőkkel szerzett tapasztalatok mellett Reitsch kaszkadőrként mozog a moziban. 1934-ben megtörte a világon a nők magassági rekordját (9184 láb). A lelkes náci és Hitler csodálója, a Fuhrer, az első nő, aki ilyen megtiszteltetésben részesült, tiszteletbeli repülési századossá tette. 1937-ben a Luftwaffe, a német légierő tesztpilótaként tette hozzá. Reitsch megragadta ezt a repülési lehetőséget annak részeként, amit Németországnak a „békeportálok őrzőjének” nevez. - Jelzései között szerepelt egy proto-helikopter tesztelése 1939-ben.

Reitsch a többi világháború idején közelebb lépett a tényleges harchoz, amikor a német csapatokat a Maginot vonal mentén helyezte el Franciaországban a németek 1940-es inváziója alatt, a vitorlázó repülővel. Megnyerte a második osztályú vaskeresztét azért, hogy életének kockázatával megpróbálta elvágni a brit léggömb-léggömbök kábeleit (a léggömbök pilóta nélküli pillanatai voltak, egy helyre vannak kötve, ahonnan acélkábelek lógtak, hogy az ellenséges repülőgépek szárnyai és hajtócsavarjai megsérüljenek). . A tesztelt hadi repülőgépek között szerepelt a Messerschmitt 163, egy rakéta-hatalom-elfogó, melyről 500 mph repült.Mialatt & # 246t & # 246dik alkalommal tesztelte a ME 163-at، ellenőrizetlen & # 252l kil & # 233pett & # 233s & # 252tk & # 246z & # 233s al & # 225 ker & # 252lt (b & # 225r az & # 252 & # 24tk & # 225n megs & # 233r & # 252lt، ennek ellen & # 233re siker & # 252lt pontosan le & # 237rnia، mi t & # 246rt & # 233nt، mielőtt kiszabadult a s & # 233r & # 252l & ​​# 233seiből). Ez & # 233rt Hitler első oszt & # 225ly & # 250 Vaskereszttel & # 237t & # 233lte oda.

A m & # 225sodik vaskereszt & # 225tv & # 233telekor، amikor Hitlertől 1944-ben Berchtesgadenben megkapta ezt، elk & # 233pzelte egy Luftwaffe & # 246ngyilkos csapatot، amely a V-1 & speci & # 225. Hitlert eredetileg alleasztotta az & # 246tlet، csak az & # 233rt، mert nem gondolta، hogy az erőforr & # 225sok hat & # 233kony vagy eredm & # 233nyes felhaszn & # 225l & # 225sa. De Reitsch elk & # 246telezetts & # 233ge r & # 225győzte őt، hogy vizsg & # 225lja meg az ilyen rep & # 252lőg & # 233pek tervez & # 233s & # 233nek kil & # 225t & # 225sait. Ekkor & # 246ssze & # 225ll & # 237totta az & # 214ngyilkoss & # 225gi csoportot & # 233s elősz & # 246r v & # 225llalta a k & # 246vetkező & # 237g & # 233ret & # 233t: „Ez & # 250ton ... felv & # 233telt szerezzek az & # 246ngyilkos csoportba egy emberi vitorl & # 225z & # 243 bomba. Teljes m & # 233rt & # 233kben meg & # 233rtem، hogy e minős & # 233gben t & # 246rt & # 233nő foglalkoztat & # 225s saj & # 225t hal & # 225lomat fogja eredm & # 233nyezni. "A csapatot soha nem helyezt & # 233k be.

Reitsch volt az egyik utols & # 243 ember، aki & # 233letben l & # 225tta Hitlert. 1945. & # 225prilis 26 - & # 225n Ritter von Greim t & # 225bornokkal rep & # 252lt Berlinbe، akinek a Luftwaffe parancsnoks & # 225got kellett adniuk. Greim megsebes & # 252lt، amikor Reitsch rep & # 252lőg & # 233p & # 233t szovjet l & # 233gij & # 225rmű-tűz s & # 250jtotta. Miut & # 225n b & # 250cs & # 250t mondott a fihar & # 233r & # 243l، amelyet a bunker & # 233be dobtak، Greim visszarep & # 252lt Berlinből.

A h & # 225bor & # 250 ut & # 225n Reitsch-t az amerikai hadsereg foglyul ejtette & # 233s intern & # 225lta. Tan & # 250s & # 237totta Hitler szem & # 233lyis & # 233g & # 233nek „sz & # 233tes & # 233s & # 233t” ، amely & # 225ll & # 237t & # 225sa szerint a h & # 225bor & # 250 utols & # 243 napjaiban volt tan & # 250ja. Kiad & # 225sa ut & # 225n Reitsch folytatta a rekordok fel & # 225ll & # 237t & # 225s & # 225t، bele & # 233rtve az első nőt، aki vitorl & # 225z & # 243 rep & # 252lők & # 233nt rep & # 252lt. 1951-ben kiadta & # 246n & # 233letrajz & # 225t ، مندوب & # 252l & ​​# 233s az & # 233letem، 1962-től 1966-ig a Gh & # 225na nemzeti sikl & # 243iskol & # 225j & # 225nak igazgat & # 243ja volt. 1979-ben، 65 & # 233ves kor & # 225ban halt meg، csak egy & # 233vvel azut & # 225n، hogy & # 250j női rep & # 252l & ​​# 233si t & # 225vols & # 225got & # 225ll & # 237tott fel. Karrierje sor & # 225n t & # 246bb mint 40 vil & # 225grekordot & # 225ll & # 237tott fel motoros & # 233s motor n & # 233lk & # 252li rep & # 252lőg & # 233pek rep & # 252l & ​​# 233s & # 233re.


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